SIX RADIOCARBON ANALYSIS HAVE DETERMINED THE AGE OF THE UNDERGROUND LABYRINTH UNDERNEATH THE PYRAMID OF THE SUN
Dr. sci. Sam Semir Osmanagićh
One Underground Labyrinth in Visoko, Three European Labs,
Four Ancient Cultures and Six Samples of the Organic Materials
Team of the non-profit "Archaeological park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun" Foundation discovered the network of the passageways and chambers under the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids in Visoko, Bosnia-Herzegovina in 2005. Several hundred meters of tunnel that lead toward the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun have been cleared and secured in a period 2005-2010. Tens of thousands of tourists have already visited this pre-historical archaeological location being very impressed with this discovery.
Organic materials have been found by the tunnel walls, and stalactites and stalagmites in the side tunnels. Six samples have been sent to the leading European Radiocarbon Labs in Sweden, Germany and Poland.
Underground tunnel network had been built in conglomerate rock that has been sedimented for tens of thousands years. A piece of wood was discovered in the tunnel's wall in 2007, 140 meters from the entrance. Dimensions were 35x18x12 cm. Department for Radio-Isotopes from the Institute for Physics of Sylesian University of Technology in Gliwice (Poland) has determined the age of the sample. Department director Dr. Anna Pazdur signed the Report which shows the age of 34.000 years BP (+/- 1.500 years). This news was publicly announced at the Press Conference during the First International Scientific Conference about the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids held in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina in August 2008.
Another sample of the same piece of wood was analyzed at the Leibniz Lab for Radiometric Dating at the Christian-Albrecht University in Kiel, Germany. Projected age was 30.600 years BP (+540 / -510 years).
This way, the beginning of the sedimentation process and forming of the conglomerate rock was determined to be over 30.000 years. Since, megalithic blocks were discovered under the conglomerate, it was logical to conclude that blocks were older than 30.000 years. According to the preliminary results from leading Croatian Atomic Institute "Rudjer Boskovic" from Zagreb this megalithic block is actually an artificial ceramic material ("sculpture").
This way we located the oldest advanced Paleolithic culture in Balkan region. It perfectly matches new findings of the anthropological genetics which claim that first immigration wave to Balkan (Bosnia included) happened approx. 35.000 years ago.
In the side tunnels several stalagmites and stalactites were located. They have formed after the tunnel ceilings collapsed. It points out that tunnel builders were gone by the time of the tunnel collapsing. Sample of the stalagmite, found 25 meters from the entrance, was sent to Sylesian University of Technology. They show the age of 5.080 years BP (+/- 75 years). Stalactite sample has shown 3.560 years BP (+/- 65 years). This way minimum age of the tunnels has been determined: over 5.000 years! Stalagmites have started forming in existing hollow spaces, passageways and chambers.
These analysis are very significant for the Bosnian and European history. The advanced underground tunnel complex is older than other cultures in the area: Medieval Bosnian Kingdom (900 years), Ancient Rome (2.000 years), Ancient Greece (2.500 years), Ilyrian tribes (2.800 years) and Butmir culture (4.600 years).
The traces of the Third culture has been located as well. They came to this area after the underground labyrinth was abandoned. For some reason, they sealed of all tunnels with the fill-in material found in the river beds (gravel, sand). They build the drywalls on every intersection using the sandstone rocks. Previously, they systematically cleaned all tunnels of artifacts, bones and tools belonging to the tunnel builders.
Several pieces of organic material from firewood were discovered by the walls of the main tunnel. One sample, discovered 180 meters from the entrance in August 2009, was sent to the leading Swedish Angstrom laboratory of the Upsala University. Their conclusion was that organic material was 3.091 years BP (+/- 111 years).
Another sample of organic material, located in the summer of 2008, 160 meters from the entrance, was sent to Institute for Physics of the Sylesian University in Gliwice. They performed very precise AMS method (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry). Age of the organic material was 4.610 years BP (+/- 35 years).
These analysis led us to conclusion that some parts of the underground labyrinth were visited by the local Neolithic culture in a period 3.000 - 4.600 years BP.
So, six radiocarbon dating confirm existence of the four very old cultures in the mid-Bosnia:
•(1) The oldest, Paleolithic culture, who made ceramic sculptures ("megalithic blocks"), older than 30.000 years
•(2) Underground labyrinth builders, older than 5.000 years
•(3) Culture who sealed off the underground passageways and chambers, capable of moving huge quantities of the material, younger than 5.000 years
•(4) Neolithic cultures, who occasionally used opened sections of the underground tunnel complex, 3.000-4.600 BP
Foundation is registered for the archaeological research and cultural heritage protection in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It has been applying inter-disciplinary scientific approach during the last five geo-archaeological seasons (2005-2010). It cooperates with the number of leading scientific and educational institutions from Egypt, Russia, Germany, Sweden, Poland, Italy, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and other countries.