Friday, June 19, 2009

Takreer Refinery Vacancies


The Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company (TAKREER) was established as a public joint-stock company to take over the responsibility of refining operations previously undertaken by the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC). The company's areas of operation include the refining of crude oil and condensate, supply of petroleum products and production of granulated Sulphur in compliance with domestic and international specifications. TAKREER is responsible for developing the refining industry. The company is also in charge of implementing national strategies aimed at enhancing the role of downstream industries in the local economy.

Takreer is recruiting following professionals for its operation

HERE

Prophet’s medicine on treating headaches

By Ibn-ul-Qayyim
HEADACHES usually occur when the head becomes hot due to the pressure of a septic vapor that accumulates near it seeking a way out of the body, but fails. The pressure of the vapor intensifies, just as a pot that is heated but its steam is not able to escape from it. It is a fact that when moisture heats up, it seeks more space and causes a headache because it is unable to expand or escape from the body. This condition causes a type of dizziness.

There are various causes of headaches:

• When one of the four essential conditions (cold, hot, dryness and wetness) becomes predominant.
• Ulcers of the stomach cause headaches, because the cephalic (relating to the head) nerves and the stomach are connected.
• Thick flatulence might accumulate in the stomach then later ascend to the head and cause headaches.
• Headaches are sometimes cause by a tumor in the gastric veins that cause pain in the head.
• When the stomach is full of food it sometimes provokes headaches, as some of the food remains undigested.
• Headaches sometimes occur after sexual intercourse because the body will then be weakened and thus exposed to the heat of the air.
• Headaches sometimes occur after vomiting due to excessive dryness, or to accumulating gaseous materials (flatulence) that ascend to the head from the stomach.
• Not having enough sleep also causes headaches.
• Headaches are sometimes caused due to the pressure exerted on the head, such as when one carries a heavy object on his head.
• Excessive movements and physical activity can also provoke headaches.
• Sadness, depression, obsession, and evil thoughts also provoke headaches.
• Excessive hunger also provokes headaches.
• Those who suffer from a tumor in the cerebral lining sometimes feel as if hammers are constantly pounding on their heads.
• Fever also provokes headaches because of the intense heat that the body suffers from.

The weaker side of the brain will accept septic material and the migraine headache will be accompanied by pulsation in the arteries. The pain may be relieved in this case when one ties a bandage so that the pulsating of the arteries is stopped and thus the pain is lessened.
Abu Na’im said in his book on Prophetic medicine that the migraine type of headache used to attack the Prophet (peace be upon him) and that it would prevent him going out of his house for one or two days at a time. Also, Abu Na’im related from Ibn Abbas that he said, “Once, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) delivered a speech while a cloth was tied around his head.”
Also the Sahih states that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said during the illness that preceded his death: “O my head!” and he used to tie a piece of cloth around his head.
Tying a piece of cloth around the head helps soothe the pain of headaches and migraines. Treating headaches varies according to their type and cause. Hence, headaches could be relieved by vomiting, eating, resting, using cold rags, cooling the body, elevating the temperature, avoiding noise, etc.
Knowing these facts, we should mention that treating headaches with Henna is partial and that it treats only some types of headache. If the headache is caused by high fever – and not by a spoiled substance that requires extraction – Henna blended with vinegar and applied to the forehead will relieve the headache. Henna also soothes the nerves when used as a bandage. Finally, Henna is not only favorable to relieve headaches, but also for various organs of the body and for the hot tumor and inflammations when used as a bandage.


– Ibn-ul-Qayyim is a 7th century Hijra Islamic scholar and this article on headaches is an excerpt from his book Healing with the Medicine of the Prophet

Polyandry: Women with two husbands as the shortage of brides worsens...

Polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) refers to a form of polygamy, or other sexual union, in which a woman is married to two or more husbands at the same time. Polygyny, on the other hand, refers to polygamy in which one man is married to two or more wives.

The form of polyandry in which a woman is married to two or more brothers is known as fraternal polyandry, and it is believed by many anthropologists to be the most frequently encountered form.


The gender ratio in India is the most skewed in the world. The 2001 census registered a ratio that had plummeted from 976 girls per 1,000 boys in 1991 to 927 girls per 1,000 boys, indicating that about 900,000 female foetuses were aborted, or girl infants killed, every year.

‘I had no choice ... I have two husbands’


Manu Kanwar, 26, a polyandrous woman, with her children. One of her two husbands, Sohan Singh stands in the shadows to the right . Ms Kanwar was labelled a fallen woman and forced to flee from Suwana village, along with her two husbands, to her parents’ house in Bhilwara town. J Adam Huggins for The National

For several years, Sohan Singh, 24, stretched himself thin in pursuit of a bride.

He advertised his availability as a groom through a popular matrimonial service; he hired a traditional matchmaker to peddle his “eligible bachelor” status in town; his relatives scoured neighbourhoods for a match, his photograph and janma patri – or Vedic birth chart – in hand. He also abandoned demands for dowry, lest it threaten his nuptial prospects.

But Mr Singh had no luck. Eventually, frustrated, he gave up, only to collude with his elder brother, Mohan Singh, 30, to do the unthinkable: he convinced him to share his wife.

“I had no choice but to submit to my husband and brother-in-law,” said Manu Kanwar, 26, hiding her face behind a ghunghat, or Indian veil. “I have two husbands.”

This is not a peculiar one-off case of polyandry in this sun-baked desert town in western India. The challenge of finding a female partner is slowly becoming an all too common problem, leading to rising social tension and increasing instances of crime and sexual violence against women – child marriages, girl trafficking – besides an increase in such practices as polyandry.

The shortage of brides, women’s rights activists say, is indicative of the acute scarcity of young girls in the region, a result of years of unbridled sex-selective abortions and female infanticide, which have reached alarming proportions.

The gender ratio in India is the most skewed in the world. The 2001 census registered a ratio that had plummeted from 976 girls per 1,000 boys in 1991 to 927 girls per 1,000 boys, indicating that about 900,000 female foetuses were aborted, or girl infants killed, every year.

The country’s Sample Registration System data for 2002-2004 revealed a further drop to 882 girls per 1,000 boys.

Across vast swathes of still-patriarchal Indian society, millions of families have preferred to have sons over daughters. Sons, considered pivotal to family welfare, continue family lineage and are sources of social and financial security to parents, while daughters have traditionally been considered a burden for the social obligation of paying dowry to the groom’s family.

In his previous term as prime minister, Manmohan Singh, in a national conference, described the dwindling number of girls as a “national shame”. “If you don’t allow girls to be born,” said Tara Ahluwalia, a women’s rights activist in Bhilwara town, “we are creating an abnormal world in which women, in short supply, are exploited.”

Women have not vanished overnight, she points out. Years of easy access to mushrooming ultrasound clinics that scan the sex of a foetus are to blame, she said.

India’s Preconception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act of 1994 prescribes a fine of up to US$2,500 (Dh9,000) and three years in jail for those found guilty of female foeticide.

But despite being banned, sex-selective abortion has swelled into a $244 million business.

About 50 ultrasound clinics, banking on the lucrative business, have sprouted in Bhilwara in the last few years. Last year, three of them were sealed after they were found breaching norms of the 1994 act. But the crackdown was not nearly enough, Ms Ahluwalia said.

“Cases drag on for years,” said Ms Ahluwalia, who testified against one clinic owner caught blatantly conducting sex determination tests. “The wheel of law grinds too slowly.”

But clinics that perform these tests are not only to blame.
At Bhilwara’s swanky Shree Sidhivinayak Hospital, a sign at the entrance reads in bold: “Sex determination is not done here.”

Yet, Dr Rekha Sharma, the clinic’s owner, said some patients, willing to offer good money, unabashedly ask for it. “Recently, one woman pregnant with her fifth child begged me to do it between sobs. ‘I already have four daughters. My in-laws harass me for a son. Please just tell me before it’s too late – do I have a boy or a girl in my womb?’ ”

Ms Kanwar, who is trapped in a polyandrous relationship because of the relentless killing of female foetuses, said she “was compelled” to abort her first baby six years ago, when Mohan Singh, her first husband, discovered it was a girl.

She gave birth to three girls and a son after that, uncertain which brother was the father of each.

“I refused to kill my daughers,” she said. “I put my foot down. I explained to my husbands that we are trapped in this relationship because girls have gone missing in this town.”

Ms Kanwar’s children, as they have gotten older, are confused about whom to call father. Tarred as “the woman with two husbands”, she is a subject of ridicule in her village. They have had to move houses twice already as the social ostracisation became unbearable.

“The only positive development,” Ms Ahluwalia said, “is that demand for dowry has gone down amid the shortage of brides”.

achopra@thenational.ae

DNA could illuminate Islam’s lineage

http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/dnastructure.jpg

For almost 1,600 years, the title Sharif, Sayyed, or Habib has been bestowed on Muslims who have been able to trace their roots back to the Prophet Mohammed through intricate family trees, oral histories and genealogical records. But now an American DNA lab says it may have identified the DNA signature of descendants of the Prophet Mohammed, and perhaps the prospect of a direct, more accurate means of confirming or identifying such a connection.

Family Tree DNA, a genealogy and genetics-testing company in Houston, Texas, says it made the discovery after several clients, reputed by oral family histories and some supporting documentation to be descended from the Prophet Mohammed, asked to have their paternal DNA sequences mapped.

“With these various samples, we were able to identify an overlapping signature in their DNA, a common thread for all of them, which is their genetic lineage from the Prophet, if their oral tradition is accurate,” said Bennett Greenspan, chief executive of Family Tree DNA, which is said to have amassed one of the largest DNA databases in the world.

The company declined to identify any of the men on the grounds of client privacy, but Mr Greenspan said “several samples came from men in different parts of the Arab world”.

Genetic testing can trace the maternal or paternal line by mapping the DNA in the sex chromosome passed on by parents. The father passes on the Y chromosome to his son and the mother her X chromosome, so only male descendants can trace both their patriarchal and matriarchal lineage. Female descendants, possessing two X chromosomes, can test only their matriarchal lineage, also known as mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA.

In recent years there have been many projects attempting to identify the DNA signatures of famous people, tribes and populations that inhabit specific regions – sometimes with surprising results.

In 2003 a group of international geneticists found that eight per cent of men in what used to be the Mongolian Empire were descended from Genghis Khan. According to a ground-breaking paper in The American Journal of Human Genetics in 2003, this meant there were no fewer than 16 million descendants of the 12th-century ruler living today.

The DNA signature of Marie Antoinette is also said to have been determined, meaning anyone suspecting a genetic link to the former queen of France can confirm their royal roots by testing their mtDNA.

Such analysis can create controversy. When the DNA signature of Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, was isolated, it appeared to give credence to the theory that Jefferson, revered as one of the America’s founding fathers, had fathered a child with his slave, Sally Hemmings.

But it could not be confirmed beyond a doubt because although Eston Hemmings, the child of the slave, shared the same Y chromosomal DNA as Jefferson, he could have been the offspring of any of Jefferson’s male relatives living in Virginia at the time.

The Prophet Mohammed had no surviving sons but his daughter Fatima married her paternal second cousin, Ali, producing two grandsons: Hassan and Hussein. Both have a traceable line of male descendants.

Because Ali and the Prophet Mohammed share the same grandfather, their paternal DNA is identical.

Descendants can confirm their lineage when they reflect similar patterns. Most Islamic scholars agree there is nothing objectionable about testing individual DNA – and countries such as the UAE encourage DNA use in criminal forensics – but there are complex rulings when it comes to using DNA in court for establishing lineage.

According to the Kuwait-based Islamic Organisation for Medical Sciences, a forum where scholars meet regularly to discuss scientific and medical ethics in Islam, the use of DNA is permissible in certain cases.

“A mechanism called qiyafah, similar to an expert witness, existed at the time of the Prophet,” said Sheikh Musa Furber, a scholar in Islamic law at the Abu Dhabi-based Tabah Foundation.

“The Prophet would send the people to an expert who can look at overall physical resemblance to deduce who might be the father. Today, instead of qiyafah, we should consider DNA testing.”

But Islamic courts do not accept DNA evidence in establishing the paternity of a child born in wedlock, as the law typically considers the mother’s husband to be the father, assuming she was not pregnant when married.

There is another issue that arises in the Islamic tradition when using DNA to establish lineage: “Lineage, or nasab, in Islamic law assumes lawful intercourse,” Sheikh Musa said. “But since a DNA test cannot prove lawful intercourse, it cannot stand as proof of lineage from a legal perspective.”

There are a few privately funded lineage projects in the region, such as the Arab DNA Project and the Arab J1e Y-DNA Project. The former is an online public forum with chat rooms and shared information for Arab men and women interested in their genetic lineage. The J1e project, accessible through the website of Family Tree DNA (at www.familytreedna.com) is more specialised. It is a forum for men whose Y chromosome belongs to the J1e haplogroup, a genetic grouping of Semitic tribes.

J1e is the genetic signature of the Hashemites, a clan to which the Prophet Mohammed belonged. The current King of Jordan, Abdullah II, is a Hashemite descendant, and one of the better-known living descendants of the Prophet Mohammed.

Just how many will test their own DNA to find a link remains to be seen, officials say. “When it comes to the Prophet, I’d rather live in doubt than receive certainty that I’m not related to him,” said Sheikh Furber.

relass@thenational.ae